Electronic
Study of a RLC circuit  Impedances
Remarque : Importance of sinusoidal currents
Examples of sinusoidal voltages : voltage of sector ( ) – High voltage lines  The transmission and reception of radio and television signals involve currents vary sinusoidally in time, ...
Fourier analysis : it shows that any periodic voltage is a sum of sinusoidal functions ; so, if we know how a circuit reacts to a sinusoidal excitation, then (by superposition) the response of this circuit to any periodic voltage is known.
Fondamental : Intensity in a series RLC circuit
Differential equation circuit (RLC) is (see lecture on transient regime) :
Notations :
The intensity has (once disappeared transient regime) the same pulse as the excitation (low  frequency generator) :
Where is the phase shift over .
Recall that :
: is ahead of .
: is behind .
In french we say : "Il est toujours positif d'être en avance !" ("It is positive to be ahead !").
The figure below shows, by numerical solution of the equation :
the shape of the voltage across the capacitor.
We see the emergence of sinusoidal permanent regime after the disappearance of the transitional regime.
"Resolution" of the series circuit (RLC) in complex notation :
The writing of the KVL in the series RLC circuit, in complex notation and using the notion of impedances :
Whence :
Or :
Where is the impedance of the series circuit (RLC), sum of the impedances of each of its constituents.
We recall the notation :
So :
If we note :
So :
The maximum intensity is therefore :
The argument of the complex impedance cheks :
The phase shift is known by the relations :
We denote the pulse for which ( and are in phase) :
If : the circuit is capacitive and ( is ahead of ).
If : the circuit is inductive and ( is behind , we find the effect of Lenz's law).

For : there is intensity resonance. The intensity is maximum and :
The following video (by Alain Le Rille) highlights the phenomenon of resonance in a series RLC circuit.
Fondamental : "Solve" a circuit in sinusoidal regime
In complex notation, we can write :

Across a dipole of impedance (admittance ) :

Across a complex emf generator and complex internal impedance :

Across a shortcircuit current of the current generator and complex internal admittance :
Thus, we obtained for a linear network in forced sinusoidal regime, expressions identical to those obtained in continuous regime.
The impedances ( and admittances) take the place of resistances (and conductances).
Can be used :
Kirchhoff's Laws (KCL and KVL), the law of voltage and current dividers, series and parallel associations of dipoles, the transform from Thevenin to Norton's representation, ...
Complément : Average values and RMS (root mean square) values

The average value of the intensity of an electric current is :

The RMS (root mean square) intensity is by definition :
Or :
The RMS intensity is the intensity of a direct current that dissipated in a resistor , in a period, the same energy as the AC :
Taking the example of a current sawtooth : considering given by the curve below.
Calculate the average intensity and the RMS intensity of this current sawtooth.
We find :
And :
We recall that for a sinusoidal current, :
And :
Simulation : JAVA animations by JJ.Rousseau (University of Le Mans)
RLC circuit in sinusoidal regime (1) : click HERE
RLC circuit in sinusoidal regime (2) : click HERE
Parametric RLC circuit : click HERE
Parallel RLC circuit : click HERE
Representation of Fresnel : click HERE
Representation of sinusoidal functions : click HERE
Impedance of a quartz : click HERE
Passive phase shifter : click HERE